Overview of Lessons

Lesson 1: What do students already know?

Students establish their INSPIRES online accounts by creating user accounts. Once the accounts are established, each student completes a series of online pre-assessments associated with 1) key concepts, 2) design processes, and 3) their attitudes and interests toward engineering and science.

Lesson 2: What is a hemodialysis system?

Students are introduced to the Hemodialysis System Design Challenge through a series of activities designed to provide connections to everyday life. The lesson begins with the students watching a video followed by a discussion of the key ideas and potential connections to family and friends who may have undergone related medical procedures. The lesson continues by distributing the Hemodialysis System Design Challenge and identifying, discussing and documenting the project’s criteria and constraints. The lesson concludes with an introduction to the importance of documentation.

Lesson 3: What is the engineering design process?

Using information from the Design Cycle Worksheet students are introduced to the various steps of the "Design cycle" recognizing the importance of utilizing a rational and systematic approach. Students then apply the concepts associated with "Step 1: Identify and Define" to the Hemodialysis System Design Challenge introduced during the previous lesson.

Lesson 4: In search of snap, krackle and pop!

Through the design, construction and testing of an apparatus to separate Rice Krispies® from other cereal components, students are introduced to the idea of a separation process. The lesson also provides an opportunity for students to experience the design loop.

Lesson 5: Connecting to the hemodialysis system design challenge

In the previous day’s activity, students used the design loop process to address the Snap, Krackle and Pop! challenge. During the first part of this lesson the teams present their designs and findings thereby allowing for an opportunity to demonstrate their current understanding of the design process. The lesson continues by providing connections between the Snap, Krackle and Pop! challenge with newly introduced background information about the function of the kidneys.

Lesson 6: Physiology of the kidneys

Students gain insights regarding the key components and processes associated with the kidneys. Students will use this information to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of designing a hemodialysis system.

Lesson 7: Introduction to dialysis

Students gain insights regarding the process of diffusion, factors that impact the diffusion rate, as well as the connection to Hemodialysis System Design Challenge.

Lesson 7 (BIO part 1): Introduction to dialysis

Students gain insights regarding the process of diffusion, factors that impact diffusion rate, as well as the connection to the hemodialysis system design challenge.

Lesson 7 (BIO part 2): Exploring factors that affect diffusion

Students learn about different factors affecting diffusion. Students will also explore the effects of temperature, concentration gradient and membrane properties on diffusion.

Lesson 8: Gravity driven flow

Through the experimentation, students will learn how a height difference can be used to control the flow rate of water through a system.

Lesson 9: Online hemodialysis content lesson

Student understanding of scientific concepts underlying the function of a hemodialysis system is further developed through the use of a computerized tutorial. While the previous activities from Lesson 7 and 8 allowed students to study factors impacting diffusion and fluid flow, the computer content lesson allows the students to visualize how molecular size and concentration affect diffusion (as well as membrane porosity, pore size and surface area for selective diffusion). Furthermore students will be introduced to co-current and counter-current flow and the Bernoulli equation.

Lesson 10: Online hemodialysis system simulation

Students integrate the various ideas and concepts addressed in the previous lessons through a computer simulation. The mathematical simulation supports the students in making connections between the various concepts through a series of challenges. These computer challenges require the students to systematically manipulate a variety of variables in an attempt to maximize their system efficiency. Students have opportunities to run their simulations multiple times, noting changes in a variety of performance indicators as they make systematic changes to input variables. As a result of these trials students recognize which components of the simulation have the greatest impact as well as the relative trade-offs associated with various design decisions.

Lesson 11+: Designing, building and testing

Students apply the knowledge and experiences they have acquired from all of the previous lessons and effectively employ the design process in order to design, build and test a hemodialysis system.

Lesson 12: Communicating Solutions

Students will collaborate in their design teams to present their findings. The teacher needs to determine if this final presentation is to be a poster, PowerPoint presentation, final paper, or a combination.

Lesson 13: What have we learned?

Individually, students log into their INSPIRES accounts and complete a series of online post-assessments associated with 1) key concepts, 2) design processes, and 3) their attitude and interest toward engineering and science.